Friends of the Earth Workshop


Friends of the Earth Workshop


Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries. Friends of the Earth was founded in 1969 in San Francisco by David Brower, Donald Aitken and Gary Soucie after Brower's split with the Sierra Club due to the latter's positive approach to nuclear energy. The founding donation of $500,000 (in 2019 USD) was provided by Robert Orville Anderson, the owner of Atlantic Richfield oil company. The Friends of the Earth in each country are themselves many-tiered networks reaching from individual activists up to the national pressure group which campaigns for environmentally progressive and sustainable policies. The groups and activists carry out educational and research activities.

Further Reading:

Brian Doherty & Timothy Doyle (2018) Friends of the Earth International: agonistic politics, modus vivendi and political change, Environmental Politics, 27:6, 1057-1078, DOI: 10.1080/09644016.2018.1462577.

Donald W. Greenberg (1985) Staging media events to achieve legitimacy: A case study of Britain's friends of the earth, Political Communication, 2:4, 347-362, DOI: 10.1080/10584609.1985.9962773

Jennifer Thomson, "Surviving the 1970s: The case of Friends of the Earth," Environmental History 22, no. 2 (2017): 235-256.



Friends of the Earth Workshop

Cite As

“Friends of the Earth Workshop,” Virtual Museum of Public Service, accessed August 15, 2022,